Monday, September 20, 2010

The Benefits of Red Wine - Review

Benefits of all alcohol:

Studies on the use of alcohol have shown protective effects against coronary heart disease (CHD). These studies show that one or two alcoholic drinks per day increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Also, moderate alcohol consumption decreases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides. Finally, alcohol consumption decreases platelet aggregation.

Benefits of Red Wine

There has been some discussion recently, including an article in the New York Times, pointing out that there is a difference in lifestyle among people who drink wine, beer, and other alcoholic beverages, including social class and diet, that may also explain why wine seems to offer more protection than others against coronary heart disease. (1)

Regardless, wine, especially red wine, really does seem to have benefits that the other sources of alcohol do not have, including:


Red wine may have anti-inflammatory effects. It reduces C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation that seems to be related to atherosclerosis. (2)


Red wine has higher concentrations of antioxidant molecules, called polyphenols, than other alcoholic drinks. The antioxidant properties of these polyphenols may contribute to protection against coronary heart disease by reducing oxidation of LDL cholesterol. (3) The polyphenols in red wine include anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and resveratrol, and flavonoids, including catechins, kaempferol, and quercetin. (4,5) However, the polyphenol content of wine is dependent upon grape variety, climate, and the methods used to make the wine. White wines, unlike red wines, have very low polyphenol concentrations.


Red wine may also reduce mutagenic DNA damage and improve endothelial function when included in a high fat diet. (6) Wine can stimulate gastric acid secretion and gastrin release. This may explain why moderate to high wine intake seems to prevent Helicobacter pylori infection. (7) Finally, the anthocyanins in red wine may help prevent various cancers. (8)


Red wine may help to prevent noise-induced hearing loss (9), reduce the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (10), may help to prevent cataracts (11), and may help to prevent rheumatoid arthritis (12).


1. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ. Wine, beer, and spirits: are they really horses of a different color? Circulation 2002;105:2806-7.
2. Estruch R, Sacanella E, Badia E, et al. Different effects of red wine and gin consumption on inflammatory biomarkers of atherosclerosis: a prospective randomized crossover trial. Effects of wine on inflammatory markers. Atherosclerosis 2004;175:117-23.
3. Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA, Friedman GD. Red wine, white wine, liquor, beer, and risk for coronary artery disease hospitalization. Am J Cardiol 1997;80:416-20.
4. Caccetta RA, Croft KD, Beilin LJ, Puddey IB. Ingestion of red wine significantly increases plasma phenolic acid concentrations but does not acutely affect ex vivo lipoprotein oxidizability. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:67-74.
5. Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. Wine as a biological fluid: history, production, and role in disease prevention. J Clin Lab Anal 1997;11:287-313.
6. Leighton F, Cuevas A, Guasch V, et al. Plasma polyphenols and antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage and endothelial function in a diet and wine intervention study in humans. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1999;25:133-41.
7. Brenner H, Rothenbacher D, Bode G, Adler G. Relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active Helicobacter pylori infection: cross sectional study. BMJ 1997;315:1489-92.
8. Hou, D. X. Potential mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanins. Curr Mol Med. 3(2):149-159, 2003.
9. Seidman, M., et al. Effects of resveratrol on acoustic trauma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 129(5):463-470, 2003.
10. Obisesan, T.O., et al. Moderate wine consumption is associated with decreased odds of developing age-related macular degeneration in NHANES-1. J Am Geriatr Soc. 46:1-7, 1998.
11. Jonasson, F., et al. Abstract B198: Moderate red wine drinking reduces risk for cataract. Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology. Fort Lauderdale, USA. May 4, 2005.
12. Kallberg, H., et al. Alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of rheumatoid arthritis; Results from two Scandinavian case-control studies. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008.

More on alcohol and red wine:


1. Consumption of little amounts of alcohol
leads to a reduction of mortality up to 18%. The study shows very important differences between men and women. Whereas men report a beneficial effect after consuming 2-4 doses maximum (a dose refers to one glass of wine or beer), women should be aware: for them, the protection guaranteed from alcohol consumption disappears just after two glasses a day.

2. Women who drank alcohol
on at least one day a week had a lower risk of coronary heart disease than women who drank alcohol on less than one day a week. However, risks were similar for drinking on one day a week (36% reduced risk), or seven days a week (35% reduced risk), suggesting that the amount of alcohol consumed is more important than drinking frequency among women. In contrast, for men, risks were lowest for the most frequent drinkers. For example, men who drank on one day a week had a 7% reduced risk, while men who drank daily had a 41% reduced risk. This suggests that it doesn’t matter how much men drink, as long as they drink every day.

3. A study finds that moderate alcohol intake (1-2 drinks/day for 3-6 days/week, depending on alcoholic content) may lead to increased quality of life and survival in older women.

4. Alcohol consumption lowers risk of developing several arthritic conditions

5. Moderate drinking, especially wine, associated with better cognitive function

Red Wine

1. Drinking more than three glasses of red wine a week could cut the risk of colorectal cancer by almost 70 per cent.

2. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, extended survival rates of mice and prevented the negative effects of high-calorie diets, says a new study. The study, described by an independent expert as potentially “the breakthrough of the year”, adds to a growing body of research linking resveratrol and red wine consumption to a range of beneficial health effects, including brain and mental health, and cardiovascular health.

3. Resveratrol, a compound found in grapes, red wine and peanuts, can improve blood flow in the brain by 30 per cent, thereby reducing the risk of stroke.

4. Drink Red Wine Daily For Best Results

5. Drinking Wine Protects Skin From Radiation

6. Lose Weight With Resveratrol?

“The physiological benefits of resveratrol are currently under intensive investigation, with recent work suggesting that it could be a good candidate for the development of obesity therapies.”

7. Resveratrol Neutralizes Toxicity of Proteins Related to Alzheimer's

8. Red wine and green tea halt prostate cancer growth

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