Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Latest Health Research


Resistance training is imperative for older adults

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 3 days ago
For many older adults, resistance training may not be part of their daily routine, but a new position statement suggests it is vital to improving their health and longevity. "When you poll people on if they want to live to 100 years old, few will respond with a 'yes'," says Maren Fragala, Ph.D., director of scientific affairs at Quest Diagnostics and lead author of the position statement. "The reason mainly being that many people associate advanced age with physical and cognitive decline, loss of independence and poor quality of life," adds Mark Peterson, Ph.D., M.S., FACSM, an assoc... more »

Slower walking speed may predict future mobility problems

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 6 days ago
American Geriatrics Society Being able to walk outside for several blocks at a leisurely pace plays an important role in living a vibrant, healthy life. Walking short distances allows you to get the physical activity you need, live independently, go shopping, access health care, and engage in a social life. Being able to walk at even a slow speed is essential to all these benefits--but walking too slowly may foreshadow future problems that could prevent you from being fully mobile. Until now, there has been no ideal way for healthcare providers to measure walking ability, since it in... more »

Learning multiple things simultaneously increases cognitive abilities in older adults

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
Learning several new things at once increases cognitive abilities in older adults, according to new research from UC Riverside. UCR psychologist Rachel Wu says one important way of staving off cognitive decline is learning new skills as a child would. That is, be a sponge: seek new skills to learn; maintain motivation as fuel; rely on encouraging mentors to guide you; thrive in an environment where the bar is set high. "The natural learning experience from infancy to emerging adulthood mandates learning many real-world skills simultaneously," Wu's research team writes in a paper re... more »

Association of Lifespan Cognitive Reserve Indicator With Dementia Risk in the Presence of Brain Pathologies

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 2 weeks ago
*Question* Is high lifespan cognitive reserve (CR) indicator associated with a reduction in dementia risk, and how strong is this association in the presence of high brain pathologies? *Findings* In this cohort study including 1602 dementia-free older adults, high lifespan CR was associated with a decreased risk of dementia. This association was present in people with high Alzheimer disease and vascular pathologies. *Meaning* Accumulative educational and mentally stimulating activities enhancing CR throughout life might be a feasible strategy to prevent dementia, even for peopl... more »

Wearing hearing aid may help protect brain in later life

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 2 weeks ago
A new study has concluded that people who wear a hearing aid for age-related hearing problems maintain better brain function over time than those who do not. It builds on important research in recent years pulled together by the Lancet Commission on Dementia Prevention, Intervention and Care, through which hearing loss emerged as an important risk factor for dementia. This research suggests that wearing a hearing aid may mitigate that risk. The research was conducted by the University of Exeter and King's College London and is presented at the Alzheimer's Association International ... more »

Computer use, crafts and games can slow or prevent age-related memory loss

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 2 weeks ago
A new study has found that mentally stimulating activities like using a computer, playing games, crafting and participating in social activities are linked to a lower risk or delay of age-related memory loss called mild cognitive impairment, and that the timing and number of these activities may also play a role. The study is published in the July 10, 2019, online issue of *Neurology*®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a medical condition that is common with aging. While it is linked to problems with thinking ability and m... more »

Consuming more polyunsaturated fat (such as omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids) in place of refined starch and sugars is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 4 days ago
As the number of people with type 2 diabetes soared to 8.8 percent of the population by 2017, a growing public health movement has sought to know if tailoring dietary recommendations to specific genetic profiles might help reduce the risk of the disease in susceptible individuals. A team of researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) has now found that the quality of dietary fat consumed and the genetic risk of diabetes work independently of each other, and that a diet rich in polyunsaturated fats can be safely applied across the spectrum of type 2 diabetes genetic risk. ... more »

Mediterranean diet during pregnancy reduces gestational diabetes and weight gain

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 6 days ago
A simple Mediterranean-style diet in pregnancy does not reduce the overall risk of adverse maternal and offspring complications, but has the potential to reduce weight gain in pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes, according to a clinical trial led by Queen Mary University of London and the University of Warwick. The results, published in the journal *PLOS Medicine* and funded by Barts Charity, show that having a Mediterranean-style diet (including 30g of mixed nuts per day and extra virgin olive oil) led to a 35 per cent lower risk of developing diabetes in pregnancy, and... more »

Early introduction of peanuts in babies to reduce allergy risk

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
Worried about peanut allergies in children? A practice article in *CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal)* outlines five things to know about early introduction of peanuts in infants to reduce the risk of peanut allergy. - Infants who are fed peanut protein regularly have a lower risk of peanut allergy. - To prevent peanut allergy, peanut protein (such as peanut butter or powdered puff) may be introduced at home for most babies between 4 and 6 months as one of the first foods. - Babies with severe eczema are more likely to have peanut allergy, and those ... more »

Following a healthy plant-based diet may lower type 2 diabetes risk

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
People who follow predominantly plant-based diets with greater adherence may have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who follow these diets with lower adherence, according to a new meta-analysis from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. The researchers also found that the association was stronger for people whose diets emphasized healthy plant-based foods. The study will be published online July 22, 2019 in *JAMA Internal Medicine* . "Plant-based dietary patterns are gaining popularity in recent years, so we thought it was crucial to quantify their overall as... more »

A spicy diet could be linked to dementia

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
Think twice before adding that extra kick of chili sauce or chopped jalapeno to your meal. New research involving the University of South Australia shows a spicy diet could be linked to dementia. A 15-year study of 4582 Chinese adults aged over 55 found evidence of faster cognitive decline in those who consistently ate more than 50 grams of chili a day. Memory decline was even more significant if the chili lovers were slim. The study, led by Dr Zumin Shi from Qatar University, showed that those who consumed in excess of 50 grams of chili a day had almost double the risk of memory de... more »

Heart disease biomarker linked to paleo diet

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
People who follow the paleo diet have twice the amount of a key blood biomarker linked closely to heart disease, the world's first major study examining the impact of the diet on gut bacteria has found. Researchers from Edith Cowan University (ECU) compared 44 people on the diet with 47 following a traditional Australian diet. The research, published in the *European Journal of Nutrition*, measured the amount of trimethylamine-n-oxide (TMAO) in participants' blood. High levels of TMAO, an organic compound produced in the gut, are associated with an increased risk of heart disease, whi... more »

A relaxation of regulation of salt content in food has been linked with 9,900 additional cases of cardiovascular disease, and 1,500 cases of stomach cancer

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
A relaxation of UK industry regulation of salt content in food has been linked with 9,900 additional cases of cardiovascular disease, and 1,500 cases of stomach cancer. Researchers from Imperial College London and the University of Liverpool analysed the salt intake of the population in England over thirteen years to compare the effect of changes in regulations on how much salt manufacturers can use in their products. The team, who published their work in the *Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health*, found that since the regulations on industry had been relaxed in 2011, th... more »

Even in svelte adults, cutting about 300 calories daily protects the heart

New data from a two-year Duke Health trial suggests when it comes to cutting your risk for killer ailments such as diabetes and heart disease, there's always room for improvement. In adults already at a healthy weight or carrying just a few extra pounds, cutting around 300 calories a day significantly improved already good levels of cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar and other markers. The findings of the randomized, controlled trial of 218 adults under age 50 are described in a July 11 article in the journal *The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology*... more »

Dietary quality influences microbiome composition in human colonic mucosa

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
It is well established that diet influences health and disease, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully understood. Shedding light on the diet-health connection, a team led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine reports today in The *American Journal of Clinical Nutrition* an association between diet quality and microbiome composition in human colonic mucosa. The researchers found that a high-quality diet is linked to more potentially beneficial bacteria; while a low-quality diet is associated with an increase in potentially harmful bacteria. They propose that... more »

The risk of developing colorectal cancer for individuals that follow a pro-inflammatory diet is two times higher than usual

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 2 weeks ago
Researchers from the Molecular Mechanisms and Experimental Therapy in Oncology program (Oncobell) of the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), together with the Biodonostia Health Research Institute (IIS Biodonostia), among others, have published in *Nutrients* the results of a multicenter study that unveils a correlation between inflammatory and antioxidant diets and the risk of developing colorectal and breast cancer. Dr. Mireia Obón-Santacana from IDIBELL-ICO is the first author of a research which was led by Dr. Pilar Ami... more »

Moderate calorie restriction in young and middle-aged adults significantly reduces heart and metabolic risk factors independent of weight loss

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 2 weeks ago
Moderately reducing caloric intake over a period of two years significantly improved cardiometabolic risk factors in young and middle-aged, non-obese adults, according to new findings from the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) (link is external) trial. The study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial supported by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) at the National Institutes of Health. According to the researchers, there are no pharmacologic age... more »

Preeclampsia risk may be reduced by a healthy high-fiber diet

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 2 weeks ago
A healthy diet rich in fibre is generally recommended, but new research shows it could be even more important during pregnancy to promote the wellbeing of the mother and child. Plant-based fibre is broken down in the gut by bacteria into factors that influence the immune system. Researchers from the University of Sydney's Charles Perkins Centre, the Barwon Infant Study from Deakin University, Monash University, James Cook University and the Australian National University collaborated to investigate the role of these metabolic products of gut bacteria during pregnancy. Senior auth... more »

Using antibiotics without a prescription is a prevalent public health problem

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 5 days ago
People using antibiotics without a prescription seems to be a prevalent public health problem. Antibiotics were obtained through various means, including saving leftover prescriptions for later use, getting them from friends and family, or obtaining them from local markets "under the counter." Findings from a scoping review are published in *Annals of Internal Medicine*. When people take antibiotics without a prescription, they often take unnecessary medication or choose an inappropriate drug or dose. This practice is associated with avoidable adverse events and may also increase ... more »

Serious falls are a health risk for adults under 65

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
Adults who take several prescription medications are more likely to experience serious falls, say Yale researchers and their co-authors in a new study. This heightened risk can affect middle-aged individuals -- a population not typically viewed as vulnerable to debilitating or fatal falls, the researchers said. To identify factors that put adults at risk for serious falls, the research team used patient data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS), a national study of individuals who receive care through the Veterans Health Administration (VA). They identified 13,000 fall cases... more »

Metformin could lower risk of dementia in African Americans with type 2 diabetes

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 2 weeks ago
A large observational cohort study examining male veterans aged over 50 years with type 2 diabetes found that metformin use was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia in African American patients. The study included data from 73,500 patients who received care through the Veteran's Health Administration from 2000-2015 and were diabetes- and dementia-free at baseline and who subsequently developed type 2 diabetes and began treatment with either metformin or sulfonylurea. Cox proportional hazards models, using propensity scores and inverse probability treatment to bal... more »

Take a bath 90 minutes before bedtime to get better sleep

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
Biomedical engineers at The University of Texas at Austin may have found a way for people to get better shuteye. Systematic review protocols -- a method used to search for and analyze relevant data -- allowed researchers to analyze thousands of studies linking water-based passive body heating, or bathing and showering with warm/hot water, with improved sleep quality. Researchers in the Cockrell School of Engineering found that bathing 1-2 hours before bedtime in water of about 104-109 degrees Fahrenheit can significantly improve your sleep. "When we looked through all known studies,... more »

Researchers find widespread aspirin use despite few benefits, high risks

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
Medical consensus once supported daily use of low dose aspirin to prevent heart attack and stroke in people at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). But in 2018, three major clinical trials cast doubt on that conventional wisdom, finding few benefits and consistent bleeding risks associated with daily aspirin use. Taken together, the findings led the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology to change clinical practice guidelines earlier this year, recommending against the routine use of aspirin in people older than 70 years or people with increased b... more »

More on vast majority of dietary supplements don't improve heart health or put off death

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
Johns Hopkins Medicine [image: IMAGE] *IMAGE: *Vitamins for heart health. view more Credit: Johns Hopkins Medicine In a massive new analysis of findings from 277 clinical trials using 24 different interventions, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have found that almost all vitamin, mineral and other nutrient supplements or diets cannot be linked to longer life or protection from heart disease. Although they found that most of the supplements or diets were not associated with any harm, the analysis showed possible health benefits only from a low-salt diet, omega-3 fatty acid... more »
General Health

Diabetes increases the risk of heart failure; more so in women than men

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
Researchers from The George Institute for Global Health determined that this differential was greater in type 1 than type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is associated with a 47% excess risk of heart failure in women compared to men, whilst type 2 diabetes has a 9% higher excess risk of heart failure for women than men. The findings published in *Diabetologia* (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) highlights the need for further sex-specific research into diabetes and how the condition can potentially contribute to heart complications. According to ...

Higher iron levels may boost heart health -- but also increase risk of stroke

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
Scientists have helped unravel the protective -- and potentially harmful -- effect of iron in the body. In a series of early-stage studies examining genetic data from over 500,000 people, a team of international scientists, led by Imperial College London, explored the role that iron plays in over 900 diseases. The results reveal not only are naturally higher iron levels associated with a lower risk of high cholesterol levels, they also reduce the risk of arteries becoming furred with a build-up of fatty substances. However the research, funded by the Wel... more »

Osteoarthritis linked to higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 1 week ago
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have investigated the link between osteoarthritis and mortality in an epidemiological study. It was shown that the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease was higher for people with osteoarthritis than for the rest of the population. Using population registers, the researchers studied approximately 469 000 people living in Skåne, Sweden, who in 2003 were between 45 and 84 years old and followed them through to 2014. The group included 16 000 patients with knee arthritis, 9 000 with hip arthritis, 4 000 with wrist arthritis and 5 500 with ot... more »

Healthy lifestyle associated with lower risk of dementia regardless of genetic risk?

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 2 weeks ago
This observational study looked at whether a healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower risk of dementia regardless of genetic risk. Genetic factors are associated with increased risk of dementia but to what extent these might be offset by lifestyle factors is unknown. Genetic information from the UK Biobank was available for the 196,383 adults in this study who were of European ancestry, at least 60 years old and without dementia at the study baseline. Scores reflecting genetic risk and lifestyle were compiled based on genetic variants associated with Alzheimer disease and dem... more »

Study: New cars are safer, but women most likely to suffer injury

Jonathan KantrowitzatHealth News Report - 2 weeks ago
Cars built in the last decade have been shown to be safer than older models, including in the most common types of crashes - frontal collisions. However, a new study conducted by researchers at the University of Virginia's Center for Applied Biomechanics shows that women wearing seat belts are significantly more likely to suffer injury than their male counterparts. Belted female auto occupants have 73% greater odds of being seriously injured in frontal car crashes compared to belted males (after controlling for collision severity, occupant age, stature, body mass index and vehicle ... more »

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