The Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet (BOLD) clinical study (Effects on Lipids, Lipoproteins and Apolipoproteins),1 conducted by The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) researchers, evaluated adults with moderately elevated cholesterol levels, measuring the impact of diets including varying amounts of lean beef on total and LDL cholesterol levels. Study participants experienced a 10 percent decrease in LDL cholesterol from the start of the study, while consuming diets containing 4.0 and 5.4 oz. of lean beef daily.
"This research sheds new light on evidence supporting lean beef's role in a heart-healthy diet. Study participants ate lean beef every day and still met targets for saturated fat intake," says Penny Kris-Etherton, PhD, RD, distinguished professor of nutrition at PSU and the study's principal investigator. "This study shows that nutrient-rich lean beef can be included as part of a heart-healthy diet that improves risk factors for cardiovascular disease."
The study used a rigorously designed Randomized Controlled Clinical Intervention Study to investigate the effects of cholesterol-lowering diets with varying amounts of lean beef. Thirty-six participants (adults ages 30-65 with moderately elevated cholesterol) were randomly assigned to a treatment order and consumed a total of four diets for five weeks each. The cross-over design allowed each participant to serve as his or her own control, reducing any errors associated with biological variation.
The four diets tested in the study were: Healthy American Diet (HAD) as control; Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); Beef in Optimal Lean Diet (BOLD); and Beef in Optimal Lean Diet Plus (BOLD-PLUS). Although BOLD and DASH diets were both rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy products, the diets differed in their primary protein source. The BOLD and BOLD-PLUS diet's primary protein source came from lean beef while DASH and HAD included white meat and plant protein. The BOLD diet included an average of 4.0 oz/day of lean beef and the BOLD-PLUS diet included 5.4 oz/day of lean beef, while the HAD and DASH diets included 0.7 and 1.0 oz/day of lean beef, respectively. Many of the BOLD and BOLD-PLUS diet menu plans incorporated recipes from The Healthy Beef Cookbook.
Details on each of the dietary interventions are as follows:
2,097 calories, 17% of calories from protein, 50% of calories from carbohydrate, 33% of calories from fat, 12% of calories from saturated fat, 0.7 oz/day lean beef (weight before cooking)
2,106 calories, 18% of calories from protein, 55% of calories from carbohydrate, 27% of calories from fat, 6% of calories from saturated fat, 1.0 oz/day lean beef (weight before cooking)
2,100 calories, 19% of calories from protein, 54% of calories from carbohydrate, 28% of calories from fat, 6% of calories from saturated fat, 4.0 oz/day lean beef (weight before cooking)
2,104 calories, 27% of calories from protein, 45% of calories from carbohydrate, 28% of calories from fat, 6% of calories from saturated fat, 5.4 oz/day lean beef (weight before cooking)
After five weeks, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the participants were significantly reduced in the BOLD, BOLD-PLUS and DASH diets compared to the HAD diet.
Overall, participants following the BOLD and BOLD-PLUS diets experienced a 10 percent decrease in LDL cholesterol from the start of the study. The improvements in heart health risk factors seen from the BOLD diets were as effective as those from the DASH and other heart-healthy diets, many of which emphasize plant proteins.
This study adds to the body of evidence regarding lean beef in a heart-healthy diet, including a recent review of 20 epidemiological studies encompassing more than one million subjects concluding that red meat intake does not increase risk of heart disease.2
"This research adds to the body of evidence concluding that you can include beef in your diet every day and get heart-health benefits," says Shalene McNeill, PhD, RD, executive director, human nutrition research for the National Cattlemen's Beef Association, which contracts to manage programs for the beef checkoff. "Americans now have more scientific evidence for including lean beef in a heart-healthy diet."
Many of the most popular beef cuts, such as Top Sirloin steak, Tenderloin, T-Bone steak and 95% lean Ground Beef meet government guidelines for lean. In fact, sixty-five percent of all beef muscle cuts available in grocery stores are lean.3,4 On average, a 3 oz. serving of lean beef is about 150 calories, an excellent source of six nutrients (protein, zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, niacin and selenium) and a good source of four nutrients (phosphorous, choline, iron and riboflavin).4
About The Beef Checkoff Program
The Beef Checkoff Program (http://www.MyBeefCheckoff.com) was established as part of the 1985 Farm Bill. The checkoff assesses $1 per head on the sale of live domestic and imported cattle, in addition to a comparable assessment on imported beef and beef products. States retain up to 50 cents on the dollar and forward the other 50 cents per head to the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board, which administers the national checkoff program, subject to USDA approval.
About the National Cattlemen's Beef Association
The National Cattlemen's Beef Association is a contractor to the national Beef Checkoff Program, which is administered by the Cattlemen's Beef Board. Consumer-focused and producer-directed, NCBA and its state beef council partners work together as a marketing organization on behalf of the largest segment of the food and fiber industry.
1. Roussell MA, Hill AM, Gaugler TL, West SG, Vanden Heuvel JP, Alaupovic P, Gillies PJ, Kris-Etherton PM. Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet study: effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 95(1).Internet: [http://www.ajcn.org/content/early/2011/12/13/ajcn.111.016261.full.pdf+html] (accessed 14 December 2011).
2. Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010; 121:2271-2283.
3. Fresh Look Marketing Group, Total US Beef, 52 weeks ending 9/25/2011.
4. USDA, ARS. 2011. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page,