A report from the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC) titled ' Coffee and type 2 diabetes: A review of the latest research' highlights the potential role of coffee consumption on the reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and the potential mechanisms involved.
Eminent experts in diabetes gathered at a satellite symposium hosted by The Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC) at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) 2018 Annual Meeting in Berlin, Germany, to discuss the latest research on coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes.
During the symposium, Associate Professor Mattias Carlström reviewed the latest scientific research on the association between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes risk; including his own meta-analysis of the data entitled 'Coffee consumption and reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes' which looked at 30 prospective studies, with a total of 1,185,210 participants.
Professor Kjeld Hermansen explored the potential mechanistic perspectives behind the inverse association between coffee consumption and T2D, presenting a summary of the research that has been undertaken in this area. The research suggests that a number of factors may be involved including an antioxidant effect, an anti-inflammatory effect, thermogenic effects or the modulation of microbiome diversity. Professor Hermansen's presentation also drew on his own research into coffee compounds such as caffeic acid and cafestol.
Key research findings highlighted in the roundtable report include:
- Meta-analyses have suggested that drinking 3-4 cups of coffee per day is associated with an approximate 25% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes2,3
- The inverse association between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes was shown in both men and women1
- Meta-analyses has suggested that both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee are associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes1,2,3
- A number of potentially clinically relevant compounds are present in coffee, including: caffeine, hydroxycinnamic acids notably chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, diterpenes eg cafestol and kahweol, and caffeic acid
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- Moderate coffee consumption can be defined as 3-5 cups per day, based on the European Food Safety Authority's review of caffeine safety4.